Sunday, 6 August 2017

The impact of the Norman conquest in English literature

The impact of the Norman conquest in English literature

The impact of the Norman conquest in English literature

On the second half of 11th century William the dark of Normandy built up in army with the help of the local warlords and invaded England and defeated the English king harold 2 the king in the years 1066. This incident known as Norman conquest was destined to excused a profound influence on the social political and religious life of the English people infect this incident changed the course English history and culture. The immediate consequence of the conquest was the introduction of feudalism a new kind of aristocracy. Along with this came French normal language of the aristocracy which continued to be use at least for 200 years. English, however remained the language of the mass, of the uncultivated. Again, all the important positions in the church were given to the french clergy, who would use Latin as their vernaculer and as the language for learning. This provide the much needed stimulus to the intellectual life of the English people, is it opened their ways to the classical worlds of Greece and Rome. By the beginning of the 14 century english become Universal for all practical purpose, but it was no longer purely a tongue of the Anglo-Saxons; for the old English saw the rice of a new English language, middle English which was more or less the beginning of modern English. The most prominent change in the field of literature was that the old English poetic themes and forms were replaced by the French ones romance and allegory. The love poetry of the troubadours of southern france and the war poetry of the trouvers of the northern France together in combination produced a new kind of poetry call Romance. In this Chanson de Roland become the model of the Romance. On the other hand, roman De La Rose become a model For The mediaeval allegorical Love poetry. In consideration of the types of production, the literature following the conquest can roughly be divided in some groups- (i) " the matter of Britain", dealing with the story of King Arthur, (ii) " the matter of England" celebrating the English heroes" (iii) " the matter of France" , connected with the French king Charlemage the Great, (iv) " the matter of Greece and Rome" , connected with the classical heroes like Alexander. The period following the conquest saw the body of popular tales, a great majority of which is in verse often having a moral. Some of them are short anecdoters, called exemplum, teaching a lesson on illustrating a point. The counterpart of the 'exempla' was the 'fabliau', a kind of short story made by leyman in the fashion of exemplum and circulated orally. Another types was bestiary, derived from Aeshop's fables and Physiologues. On the other hand, please find the writing of some chronicles, mainly based on legends and imagination. The start striking exception in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, describing the misteries of the English Under their ruthless French rulers. Other instances can be made by Layamon's Brut and Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle, The Bruce, Robert Maning's story of England etc. In order to touch heart of the conquered people and leave them to miracles legends connected with saints, the French clergy game birth to a new kind of religious verse such as Ormulum, Poema Morale, Cursor Mundi, The prick of Conscience, synne etc. Along with the religious verse there appeared a new kind of secular poems. This is known as Breton Lay; for instance, Sir Orfeo, Le Freins and Sir Launfal. The Norman Conquest caused the death of the age-old Old English lyrics, and in their place came a new kind of lyric on various subjects; for instance, Sumer in icumen, The Cuckoo's song, Alysoun etc.